Catchment scale

For the large-scale experiment, two adjacent experimental sub-catchments were established at each of the three field sites:

the ‘control sub-catchment’ and the ‘treatment sub-catchment’ (see schematic figure in the Expt. design section); sub-catchment size of peat area was approximately 10 ha (see pictures in the Field sites section). Pre-treatment monitoring was carried out within both sub-catchments for one growing season after which mowing of heather within the treatment sub-catchment replaced the 'business as usual' burning still to be continued in the control sub-catchment.

Burning and mowing at Nidderdale (both by the site's gamekeeper) Compaction by vehicle tracks (about 15 cm)

Burning and mowing at Mossdale (gamekeeper; Dalefoot Compost) Fine mossy heather brash (cutting height 14 cm)

Burning and mowing at Whitendale (gamekeeper; Dinsdales Moorland Services) Coarse heather brash (~2-5 cm length)