Peat pipes

Peat pipes will be measured at two different frequencies using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), either in continuous (all terrain vehicle; DMS) or local (manual; Birkbeck) mode. We will do this across recorded transects using GPS.
Although peat pipes appear to be only infrequent at our sites (based on initial visual observations), they do provide a mostly hidden underground export route for water and dissolved or particulate carbon (DOC, POC).

In August 2012 we surveyed all control and treatment sub-catchments with automated GPR equipment with both, 100 and 250 MHz antenna. For this we followed a predetermined path, criss-crossing over the sub-catchments and always alongside one side of the monitoring plots. The same paths will be re-surveyd in 2016.

Automated peat depth and pipe survey by DMS at the Forest of Bowland
We also manually surveyd the individual plots at control and treatment sites with GPR (Charles Bristow; Birkbeck, London). For this we used a 200 MHz antenna surveyd the entire plot perimeter at 10-20 cm steps, which will capture peat pipes as well as a detailed peat depth profile. The same locations will be re-surveyed in 2016.

Manual Peat depth and pipe survey by Charles Bristow at the Forest of Bowland